Car Recycling: The Ultimate Resource

What is Vehicle Recycling?

As of the first quarter of 2019, there were a total of 276 million vehicles in operation on the roads of the United States. Approximately 17 million new vehicles are added to the national fleet each year, and the rest get another year older. It is a never-ending cycle.

At some point in time, most of these vehicles will come to the conclusion of their useful lives. Each year, it adds up to around 12 million vehicles reaching the end of the line in the US, along with another 500,000 in Canada. The causes are many and varied:

The causes are many and varied:

  • A bad accident
  • Failure of a major mechanical component or system
  • Fire
  • Floods and other natural disasters
  • Theft and stripping
  • Age
  • Wear and tear
  • Lack of maintenance
  • Reaching the point where they are not worth fixing
  • And so on…

Back in the 1960s, the world did not yet know what ecology and concern for the environment were all about. There also wasn’t much discussion going on about ways to get some financial benefit out of all the junk cars piled up in junkyards around the country. As the Highway Beautification Act of 1965 led to the elimination of the huge roadside junkyards that blighted America’s highways, and the first Earth Day in 1970 brought environmental awareness to the public, the structure of the contemporary automotive recycling industry came into focus.

Overview of the Car Recycling Industry

The auto recycling industry has become the 16th largest industry in the US, employing 140,000 people and contributing $32 billion in sales each year. More significantly, the automotive recycling industry can proudly claim that it has made the automobile the single most recycled product in the entire world, processing fully 95% of all the vehicles that have reached the ends of their lives.

The Importance of Vehicle Recycling

The automotive recycling industry performs a very important service. Through its process of dismantling, reusing, and recycling millions of vehicles that no longer function, this industry benefits society as a whole in many different ways:

The environmental benefits

The act of recycling many millions of vehicles each year results in numerous benefits to the environment. These include:

  • Extending the timeline for when finite sources of raw materials will run out.
  • Eliminating the blight of old-school junkyards, full of rusting cars.
  • The disappearance of most “mountains” of waste tires, which were ugly sources of standing water, mosquitos, and disease.
  • Recycling reduces the amount of new raw materials required for auto production, lowering energy demand and costs.
  • Recycling over 14 million tons of steel from junk vehicles each year.
  • Reducing energy usage by 74% and lowering steel plant emissions, by using recycled metal instead of making it purely from ore.
  • Saving 2500 lb. of iron ore, 1400 lb. of coal, and 120 lb. of limestone each time that one ton of steel is recycled.
  • Using recycled steel for 25% of a new car’s body.
  • Reducing greenhouse gases by 30 million metric tons each year by recycling automotive metals.
  • Recycling fully 90% of all automotive aluminum.
  • Saving 90% of the energy required to mine and process copper by using recycled copper instead.
  • Preventing pollution of our groundwater by reclaiming fluids from junk cars. This adds up to 100.8 million gallons of fuel, 24 million gallons of motor oil, 45 million gallons of windshield washer fluid, and 8 million gallons of coolant each year.
  • Removing toxins like mercury (from switches) and sodium azide (from airbags), before they can cause environmental damage.
  • Recycling hundreds of millions of discarded old tires each year into road-building materials, roofing, playground cushioning, and other products.
  • Recycling auto glass into products like porcelain, flooring tiles, countertops, and jewelry.
  • Recycling auto carpeting into new car parts.
  • Recycling lead-acid car batteries into new ones.
  • Saving 85 million barrels of oil per year that would otherwise be used to make new car parts.
  • Reducing the demand for scarce landfill space.
  • Making the automotive industry aware of hazardous materials like chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in junk cars, leading to their elimination in new vehicles.

The economic and financial benefits

  • The automotive recycling industry is the 16th largest in the US, and it contributes $32 billion in sales each year to the nation’s economy.
  • More than 140,000 people are employed at 9,000 automotive recycling businesses across the US.
  • Auto recycling jobs are higher-paying, contributing significant tax revenues at the local, state, and federal levels.
  • Catalytic converters contain precious metals including platinum, palladium, and rhodium, which can be re-used to make new catalytic converters. Other uses for these metals are pharmaceuticals, electronics, and jewelry.
  • Usable parts from junk cars can be resold to keep other cars running longer, also eliminating the need to make new parts.
  • Consumers can realize some monetary value from their vehicles, even when they no longer function.
  • Automotive recyclers have become an excellent resource for cost-effective and hard-to-find used vehicle replacement parts.
  • Automotive recycling reduces vehicle insurance rates by purchasing “totaled” vehicles from insurance companies, letting them recover financial losses.
  • The lower cost of recycled metals, compared to new, keeps down the prices of the products they are used in.

The Auto Recycling Process

There are several distinct stages to the automotive recycling process, which are performed in a set order. Each stage makes it possible for the next to be done, with the objective of ending up with the maximum materials and parts value, and the minimum impact to the environment. These stages are:

1. Depollution

Depollution

This is the first step in automotive recycling, and it focuses on removal of all the fluids that are used in the operation of a motor vehicle. These include:

  • Gasoline
  • Oil
  • Coolant
  • Brake fluid
  • Transmission fluid
  • Air conditioning refrigerant
  • Gear oil
  • Windshield washer fluid

These materials, once removed from the vehicle, can be reused, reprocessed, recycled, or disposed of, in an environmentally responsible way that will not contaminate the water table or the food supply.

2. Dismantling
3. Destruction
4. Resource Recovery

What is a Car Made of?

The average car on the road is a sophisticated and complex machine, made of a wide variety of different materials. This is because today’s cars must be many different things, and all at the same time. They must be:

  • Safe
  • Comfortable
  • Attractive
  • Affordable
  • Reliable
  • Pleasant to drive
  • Roomy enough for everyone you need to travel with
  • Spacious enough to hold everyone’s gear
  • Able to sync with your phone
  • Powerful enough to tow (if required)
  • Able to go off-road (if required)
  • And more
Get Cash for Junk Cars by Junk Car Medics

It takes many different types of materials to do all this!

Vehicle manufacturers put various combinations of these things into a car, as it goes down the assembly line:

  • Steel
  • Iron
  • Aluminum
  • Copper
  • Magnesium
  • Titanium
  • Platinum
  • Palladium
  • Rhodium
  • Lead
  • Carbon Fiber
  • Glass
  • Fabric
  • Carpet
  • Foam padding
  • Rubber
  • Plastics
  • Sulphuric acid
  • Oil
  • Gasoline
  • Coolant
  • Brake fluid
  • Transmission fluid
  • Air conditioning refrigerant
  • Gear oil
  • Windshield washer fluid
  • Paint
  • Electronics
  • Ceramics

Broken down by percentages, here’s what the average car is made of:

What happens when a car reaches the end of its useful life, and the recycling process is the next logical step? This amazing machine, with so many brilliantly engineered capabilities, will be broken back down into the original “elements” it was made of. Many of its parts will be reused or recycled, giving new life to both old cars and new ones. Think of it as the circle of automotive life!

chart

Metal                             74%
Plastics                            8%
Fluids                              6%
Rubber                            5%
Glass                               2%
Textiles                            1%
Miscellaneous                 4%

What Parts of the Car CAN'T be Recycled?

While the vast majority of every automobile can be reused or recycled, there is one by-product that has not yet made it completely into the recycling stream. That is ASR, or Automotive Shredder Residue. It adds up to 15% to 20% of the car’s content.

SEE ALSO:   25 Recycling Experts Share Their Top Tip for Recycling in 2015

ASR is what’s left, after everything else of value in a recycled car has been shredded and removed, using current technology. ASR is made up of small pieces of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, fabric, glass, rubber, plastic, fluids, wood, and dirt. Some hazardous metals and chemicals like lead, cadmium, and PCBs may also be present in ASR. This has caused ASR to be classified as hazardous waste in some places, requiring special handling, and limiting recyclers’ ability to repurpose it. Half of the ASR produced ends up in landfills.

There are ongoing efforts to find uses for ASR, as well as to separate out and recycle its non-threatening components. These efforts include:

  • Using ASR as a fuel supplement in cement and steel production
  • Converting it into synthetic crude oil or natural gas
  • Agricultural uses
  • Removing the small pieces of steel, iron, aluminum, and copper for use in recycling
  • Recovering the plastics for recycling (more on this later)

What Parts of the Car Can Be Recycled?

A full-service automotive recycling facility will have no problem taking your entire car, breaking it down responsibly, and reusing or recycling just about all of it. But what if you’d like to do it yourself? Here’s a handy guide to recycling your own car parts, taking one part at a time.

JCM Tip:

If you are going to recycle your own car, find a safe, secure place to store all of its parts while you go through the process.

What are some other uses for recycled junk car parts?

There is a fascinating subculture made up of individuals who use junk car parts to create a wide array of objects. Some of these people create works of art, some repurpose the parts for practical but non-automotive uses, and some even use the car parts to create sculptures of cars in actual size!

Here are some examples of what people across the country and the world have done with junk cars and car parts:

Works of art:

Making cars from parts:

  • Supercars (and superheros) made from car parts in Poland

Practical use:

  • Furniture made from junk classic cars
  • A variety of household items made from repurposed junk car parts like those listed below can be found here and here:
  • Headboard made from mechanical parts
  • Coffee table made from tires
  • Outdoor grill made from front half of a Mini
  • Hanging lamp made from aluminum wheel
  • Wall clock made from hubcap
  • Towel rack made from steering wheel
  • Table lamp made from camshaft
  • Coffee table made from engine block
  • Bookends made from alloy wheels cut into ¼’s

Automotive Recycling Statistics

Environmentally-Friendly Auto Recyling Statistics

Recycling Programs of Major Car Manufacturers

Many automobile manufacturers are incorporating recycled materials into their new vehicles. The greatly increased environmental awareness on the part of the public has driven these companies’ desires to be seen not only as more ecologically aware, but also as contributing to the solution.

Thanks to the automotive recycling industry, materials like steel and aluminum have long been recycled into the metal products that new cars are made of. The new car manufacturers have been working on a variety of solutions to the issues of using other, not-so-easily recycled materials in the manufacturing process. This has the dual environmental benefits of requiring less new materials to be produced (reducing carbon emissions), while also creating a market for materials that might otherwise become part of the waste stream and end up in landfills. Here are a few examples:

Ford

Ford

The Ford Motor Company has made multiple efforts to use recycled materials in its production cars. These include:

  • Making a total of 300 parts from materials that are renewable and sustainable.
  • Using 1.2 billion recycled water bottles each year to make plastic underbody parts for its cars. Each car uses 250 bottles’ worth.
  • Taking Jose Cuervo’s agave (after it has been used to make tequila) and using it for plastic parts production
  • Converting a total of 300 million pounds of used airliner carpeting into car parts
  • Switching to soy-based foam for all of its seats
  • A plan to have its plants worldwide use 100% renewable energy no later than 2035
SEE ALSO:   Scrap Car Prices Per Ton in 2019 Suck But Here's How to Get The Most Cash for Your Scrap Car
Toyota
BMW
Subaru

Learn More about Vehicle Recycling: More Articles

Glossary of Automotive Recycling Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Abandoned Vehicle – Vehicle unclaimed by the registered owner of record.

ARA – (Automotive Recyclers Association) A non-profit trade association representing industry professionals dedicated to the responsible and efficient removal and reuse of automotive parts and the environmentally responsible processing of end of life motor vehicles.

Automotive recycling – The efficient, environmentally responsible processing of motor vehicles for reusable components and materials.

Automotive recycling facility – A physical location where automobiles are processed and recycled.

Automotive recycler – A person who is engaged in the act of buying or acquiring motor vehicles for the purpose of dismantling, selling, or otherwise processing components and recyclable materials.

Automotive wrecking/salvage/junk yard – refer to automotive recycling facility.

C

CAR – Certified Automotive Recycler.  A designation awarded by ARA or one of its approved affiliate chapters’ program to professional recyclers who conform with industry established best practices while operating in compliance with local, state, and federal regulations (including environmental and safety).

Collision Parts – Those parts commonly damaged in an automobile accident, including exterior metal or composite material parts such as, but not limited to, doors, fenders and bumpers, otherwise known as crash parts, cosmetic or the skin of the vehicle.

Core – Any automotive part or component suitable for rebuilding, reconditioning, remanufacturing, or utilization for recyclable materials.

D

Dealer, Motor Vehicle - A person or entity that purchases motor vehicles for resale.

Derelict Vehicle – Refer to end of life vehicle.

Dismantle – To take a vehicle apart for the purpose of reclaiming recyclable parts and materials.

E

End of Life Vehicle – Any identifiable motor vehicle, with or without all component parts, and is in such condition that its highest or primary value is either in its sale for reusable components or recyclable materials.

Electronic Components – A component part of a motor vehicle that creates or receives an electrical current flow.

F

Fluid Recovery System – Equipment utilized to recover vehicle fluids.

G

Gold Seal Certification - Awarded to professional members of the Automotive Recyclers Association who have completed the Certified Automotive Recycler's Program. Recyclers must meet certain stated requirements and agree to follow a number of strict professional business practices, rules and regulations.

H

Hard parts – Any mechanical automotive parts or components (i.e. engine, transmission, suspension, etc.).

J

Junkyard – An obsolete term referring to an automotive recycling facility.

Junk Vehicle – refer to end-of-life vehicle.

M

Major Component Part – Any component or assembly which has a VIN, or derivative marking.

Metal recycler – refer to scrap metal processor and recycler.

Motor Vehicle – A vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer or semi-trailer propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used on public streets, roads, or highways, but does not include a vehicle operated only on a rail line.  A motor vehicle shall not include motor vehicles which have been flattened, crushed, baled or logged for purposes of scrap metal only.

N

Non-deployed Air Bag – An airbag that is part of a supplemental safety restraint system that has not been activated.

Nonrepairable motor vehicle - A motor vehicle that is damaged, wrecked, or burned to the extent that the only residual value of the vehicle is as a source of parts or scrap metal; or comes into any state under a title or other ownership document that indicates that the vehicle is nonrepairable, junked, or for parts or dismantling only.

O

OEM Parts – Parts that are components of newly manufactured vehicles.

Operator – A qualified person or a firm licensed by a government entity where required for the purpose of doing business.

P

Parts Car – A vehicle that is purchased and dismantled for the recovery of reusable parts and recyclable materials.

Pre-dismantling – Initial procedures taken to remove and inventory automotive components or parts in anticipation of future sales.

R

Rebuilder – A person or company who rebuilds a vehicle for the purpose of re-registration.

Rebuilt Part – Those that have been salvaged or reconditioned to good-as-new condition.  Included but not limited to alternators, starters, water pumps, clutches, brake calipers, brake shoes, master brake cylinders, and fuel pumps.

Recycled / recyclable parts – Parts removed from a vehicle and made available for resale/reuse.

Recycler - One who processes or otherwise handles scrap metals, paper, plastic, glass, textiles, or rubber for profit, as an agent or principal, with or without physical possession of the material, with the result that a substantial amount of the scrap materials are consistently utilized further to manufacture a product that otherwise could have been produced using virgin materials.

Recycling business - A business that is primarily engaged in: converting ferrous or nonferrous metals or other materials into raw material products having prepared grades and having an existing or potential economic value; using raw material products of that kind in the production of new products; or obtaining or storing ferrous or nonferrous metals or other materials for purposes of selling, dismantling, or wrecking vehicles

Remanufactured part – A used part that has been inspected, rebuilt, or reconditioned to restore functionality and performance.

Repairable Vehicle – A salvage or damaged vehicle that can be economically and safely repaired or restored to its prior condition for reuse or retitling.

Replacement part – A part that replaces a damaged part on a vehicle.  This part can be new, recycled, aftermarket, remanufactured, or OEM.

Reused Parts – Parts removed from a vehicle and used as a replacement part for repair.

S

Salvage motor vehicle – Any motor vehicle which is damaged, dismantled, or in worn out condition and is unfit for safe operation as a motor vehicle.

Salvage pool - A person or entity who engages in the business of selling motor vehicles or salvage motor vehicles at auction.

Salvage Vehicle – Refer to salvage motor vehicle.

Salvage vehicle dealer – Refer to automotive recycler.

Scrap metal processor and recycler – One who, from a fixed location, utilizes machinery and equipment for processing and manufacturing iron, steel or nonferrous metallic scrap into prepared grades and whose principal product is scrap iron, scrap steel, or nonferrous metallic scrap for sale for remelting purposes.

Secondary Metals Recycler – any person or entity who is engaged, from a fixed location or otherwise, in the act of paying compensation for ferrous or nonferrous metals that have served their original economic purpose, whether or not engaged in the business of performing the manufacturing process by which ferrous metals or nonferrous metals are converted into raw material products consisting of prepared grades and having an existing or potential economic value.

T

Total Loss Vehicle – Any vehicle that has been deemed, by its owner or insurer, to be uneconomical to repair.

Totaled Vehicle – refer to Total Loss Vehicle.

V

Vehicle title branding – A permanent designation on a vehicle's title (i.e. salvage, non-repairable, total loss, flood, junk, or other legal designations).

SOURCE: Automotive Recyclers Association

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